Arctic Kelp Bed Study
Peggy Deichstetter, ARMADA Master Teacher
Kimberly Kelem, ARMADA Mentee
- Duggind, David O., 1981. Sea urchins and kelp: The Effects of Short Term Changes in Urchin Diet. Limnology. Oceanography., 26(2), 1981, 391-394
This article dating to the 1980's already observed that selective grazing by urchins results in growth plants of low palatability to urchins, while overgrazing results in complete removal of macroalgae (Kelp).
- Dunton, Ken H. 2005 Long-Term Monitoring of the Kelp Community in the Stefansson Sound Boulder Patch: Detection of Change Related to Oil and Gas Development cANIMIDA 2005 Annual Report: Summers 2004 and 2005, February 15, 2006 Report given to Department of Interior, Minerals Management Service.
Personal copy given to me by Dr. Dunton
This is the report of the work done Ken Dunton's research team in Alaska in 2004-2005. This is all the research that our team continued in the summer of 2006.
- Dunton, Kenneth H. 2003 Advection of Carbon on the Western Arctic Shelf: Implications for Benthic-Pelagic Coupling, Report given to SEARCH (Studying of Environmental Artic Change) October 27, 2003
In this report Ken outlines the flow of the Benthic biomass relating to the northward flow of organically-rich waters that pass through the Bering Strait. However the richness of the water is depleted before it gets to the Beaufort Sea. The area of the Boulder Patch study.
- Goodall, Jonathan, Maidment, David and Dunton, Kenneth 2003. Spatial and Temporal Trends of the Western Arctic Ocean Benthic Community, CRWR Online Report 2003
This article describes how Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to manage, analyze, and display the spatially referenced point samples, as well as the interpolated continuous surface of benthic biomass.
- Grebmeier, J.M. and Dunton, K.H. 2000. Impacts of Changes in Sea Ice and other Environmental parameters in the Arctic. Benthic processes in the northern
Bering/Chukchi seas: status and global change, pp. 61-71
Dr. Dunton and Dr. Grebmeier work in the Artic is reported to the Marine Mammals Commission at the Workshop in February 2000. Needless to say the loss of Ice in the article is having a profound effect of the life in the Artic.
- Helfferich,Carla Scientists Show Kelp Helps--with a Little Help from their Friends
Alaska Science Forum August 16, 1989
This article dating from 1989 already is seeing the relationship between Kelp, Otters and Sea Urchins. As the Otters disappear the Sea Urchins increase and the Kelp decreases.
- Raven, John A.; Johnston, Andrew M.; Dunton, Kenneth H 2002. Seaweeds in Cold Seas: Evolution and Carbon Acquisition. Annals of Botany. 90(4):525-536, October 2002
This article gives the hypothesis that Brown algae (Kelp) evolved after the last ice age. Even so it cannot reproduce at temperatures above 18-25 [degrees]C. This suggests that brown algae used diffusive carbon dioxide entry rather then concentrated.
- Strassberg, Gil 2003. Dilution Attenuation Factors in Susceptibility Assessments: A GIS Based Method, Center for Research in Water Resources 2003 report
The work presented focuses on the development of a dilution attenuation factor component that is integrated into the ground water susceptibility assessment. Ken uses the Geographic Information System (GIS) to locate his areas of study.
- Schneider, Doug 2002. Boulder Patch, Arctic Science Journeys, Radio Script
This is a great interview with Brenda Konar and Ken Dunton. It gives a really great history of how Ken started his research her. This article has some really great picture of the area. This is truly a unique place; a reef in the Arctic
- Springer, Allen and Estes, James 2003. Collapse Of Seals, Sea Lions and Sea Otters in North Pacific Triggered by Overfishing of Great Whales Sea. Sea Web report to the National Academies of Science Wed, Sept 22nd, 2003
This research shows the complexity of the Arctic Food Web. The authors demonstrate how the killing of the great whales has resulted Killer Whales find another food source. That food source includes Seals, Sea Lions and Sea Otters. With fewer Sea Otter to feed on the Sea Urchins the Urchins have had a population boom, leading to the devastation of Kelp beds.