Census of Marine Zooplankton- Exploring the Deep Sargasso Sea
Joseph Catron, ARMADA Master Teacher
Gayle Marie Lam, ARMADA Mentee
- Bucklin A. and Wiebe P. 1986. Genetic heterogeneity on euphasid populations: Euphausia krohnii and Nematoscelis megalops in North Atlantic slope water. Limnological Oceangraphic 31(6): 1346-1352
Ann Bucklin and Peter Wiebe examined two species of shrimp collected in the North Atlantic for allozymic heterogeneity using electrophoresis. They determined that both species exhibited considerable heterogeneity. These species demonstrate a structured reproduction.
- Bucklin A. and Kann L. 1990. Mitochondrial DNA variation of copepods: markers of species identity and population differentiation in Calanus. Reports from MBL General Scientific Meetings: p357
Ann Bucklin and Lisa Kann report success using restriction digestion of two mitochondrial genes as molecular makers in 3 species of copepods. Copepods were collected using tow nets, positively identified by Michael Mullin and preserved in alcohol. A base portion of cytochrome c and ctyochrome oxidase were amplified, digested and RFLP patterns were evaluated.
- Huntley M.E., Gonzalez A., Zhu Y., Zhou M., and Irigoien X. 2000. Zooplankton dynamics in mesoscale eddy-jet system off California. Marine Ecology Progress Series 201:165-178
The researchers listed above examined a cyclonic eddy near the central jet of California using an optical plankton counter. Following the optical scan a MOCNESS transect was completed across the study area. In general this study compared the cyclonic eddy's zooplankton to the nearby central jet and found variations. One interesting variation was an unequal abundance of male and female of a euphasid species, indicating the two bodies exhibited different populations of this species.
- Kelly R.P., Sarkar I.N., Eernisse D.J., Desalle R. 2007. DNA barcoding using chitons (genus Mopalia). Molecular Ecology Notes 7(2): 177-183
This researchers in the above study use a character-based method of barcoding. When comparing their method to the standard BLAST, they show their method out performs BLAST. They used 19 species of chitons to conduct their comparison of techniques.
- Kerr K.R., Stoeckle M.Y., Dove C.J., Weigt L.A., Francis C.M., and Hebert P.D. 2006. Primer Note: Comprehensive DNA barcode coverage of North American birds. Molecular Ecology Notes (online early articles)
This study provides a comprehensive analysis of barcode in North American birds. Most species of the 643 birds evaluated possess distinct barcode clusters. Only birds that hybridize regularly did barcodes not distinguish species. This study confirms DNA barcoding can effectively be used across North America to identify bird species.
- Koppelmann R. and Weikert H. 1992. Full-depth zooplankton profiles over the deep bathyal of the NE Atlantic. Marine Ecology Progress Series 86:263-272
In the above study the authors used a MOCNESS 1m net to sample the vertical
column of the NE Atlantic from 4000m to the upper 1000m. The profiles demonstrated high vertical variability and diurnal fluctuations. The bathyal zone of the ocean seems to be generally similar based on this sample compared to other sites.
- Leibig J.R., Vanderploeg H.A., and Ruberg S.A. 2006. Factors affecting the performance of the optical plankton counter in large lakes: insights from Lake Michigan and laboratory studies. Journal of Geophysical Research 111(C05S02)
This study examine whether optical plankton counter (OPC) accurately measures biomass and density. They determined in lakes with low plankton counts the OPC was accurate. Some overestimation of biomass was caused by particles near plankton size interfering.
- Ortner P., Cummings S.R., Aftring R.P., and Edgerton H.E. 1979. Silhouette photography of oceanic zooplankton. Nature 277:50-51
This study used silhouette photographic techniques to analyze live zooplankton samples. This technique was employed at sea. No previous methods have been able to characterize samples quickly and accurately.
- Murdoch R.C., Singleton R.J. and Grange K.R. 1990. Rapid enumeration and identification of pelagic marine fish eggs by a simple photographic technique. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 24:137-140
This paper describes a technique of using high-quality silhouette photographs of plankton samples at sea. This technique is used to identify and enumerate fish eggs in near real-time. Images were taken using standard photographic equipment and provide resolution adequate for microscopic measurement.
- Passmore A.J., Jarman S.N., Swadling K.M., Kawaguchi S., McMinn A., and Nicol S. 2006. DNA as a dietary biomarker in Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Marine Biotechnology 8(6):686-696
The authors used DNA clone libraries of diatoms to evaluate krill prey. The krill prey was removed and DNA was extracted for PCR. Results indicated that DNA methods were better than microscopic evaluation at identifying prey but the DNA technique showed some bias towards relative prey abundance.
- Pegg G.G., Sinclair B., Briskey L., and Aspden W.J. 2006. MtDNA barcode identification of fish larvae in the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Scientia Marina 70S2:7-12
Larvae fish were captured over the reef and positively identified to the genus and species using mtDNA HVRI. Within species comparison showed little genetic variation, whereas between species showed as much as 50% variation. It was determined that the coxI gene would work as a barcode marker in marine fish.
- Wiebe P. and Flierl G.R. 1983. Euphasid invasion/dispersal in gulf stream cold-core rings. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34(4): 625-652
This study examined how zooplankton population respond to the occurrence and decay of cold-core rings. Few species were able to take advantage of mixing waters; both cold-water and warm-water species, although some species survived in rings for up to a year. In general species demonstrated varied responses to cold and warm water mixing.